Analysis of basic knowledge of the hottest copper

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Analysis of basic knowledge of copper industry

copper is one of the earliest ancient metals discovered by human beings. Human beings began to use copper as early as 3000 years ago. Copper atomic weight 63.54, density 8.92, melting point 1083 ℃, boiling point 2567 ℃. Pure copper is light rose or light red. After the copper oxide film is formed on the surface, the appearance is purple copper. Copper has many valuable physical and chemical properties, such as high thermal conductivity and conductivity, strong chemical stability, high tensile strength, easy fusion, corrosion resistance, plasticity, oil ductility suitable for changing viscosity. Pure copper can be pulled into very thin copper wire to make very thin copper foil. Copper can form alloys with zinc, tin, lead, manganese, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron and other metals

copper is a typical sulfophilic element, which mainly forms sulfide in nature. Only under strong oxidation conditions can it form oxide, and natural copper can be formed under reduction conditions. At present, more than 250 kinds of copper minerals and copper containing minerals have been found in the earth's crust, mainly sulfide and its similar compounds, copper oxide, natural copper, copper sulfate, carbonate, silicate and other minerals. Among them, 16 can be used as industrial mineral raw materials suitable for the current beneficiation and smelting conditions. Natural element: natural copper; Sulfide of copper: chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, copper blue, square brass lithium iron phosphate battery has the advantages of safety, low cost, long service life and so on, tetrahedrite, arsenite, chalcopyrite; Oxide of copper: hematite, chalcopyrite; Sulfate, carbonate and silicate minerals of copper: malachite, chalcopyrite, silicomachite, water alum, and copper chloride

at present, copper mineral raw materials used in beneficiation and metallurgy in China are mainly chalcopyrite, chalcocite, bornite, malachite, etc. According to the technical conditions of beneficiation and metallurgy, the copper ore is divided into three natural types in the proportion of copper oxide and copper sulfide. That is, sulfide ore, containing less than 10% copper oxide; Oxidized ore, containing more than 30% copper oxide; Mixed ore, containing 10% - 30% copper oxide

copper deposits are widely distributed in China, and all provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government except Tianjin have been identified. Among them, Jiangxi, Tibet and Yunnan have the largest reserves. The reserves of these three provinces and regions account for 47.1% of the national copper reserves. There are also six provinces and regions with more copper reserves, such as Gansu, Anhui, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Hubei and Heilongjiang. The reserves of these six provinces and regions account for 32.3% of the national copper reserves. The reserves of the above nine provinces and regions account for 80% of the total reserves of copper mines in China

copper minerals in China have the following characteristics: (1) copper minerals suitable for beneficiation and metallurgical production occur in a variety of deposit types. Among them, the deposit types with important mining value include magmatic copper nickel sulfide deposit, porphyry copper deposit, skarn copper and polymetallic deposit, hydrothermal vein copper deposit, volcanic sedimentary massive sulfide copper deposit, sedimentary layered deposit, etc. (2) The ore structure is complex, the embedded particle size is uneven, most of which are uneven disseminated particle size ores, and even many minerals have fine embedded particle size, complex composition, and many refractory ores. (3) The chemical composition of the ore is diverse, accompanied by a variety of beneficial and harmful components, and the beneficiation and smelting process conditions are complex. At present, most of the mining areas developed are comprehensive copper deposits

the development of copper smelting technology has gone through a long process, but so far, copper smelting is still dominated by pyrometallurgy, and its output accounts for about 85% of the world's total copper output. The pyrometallurgical smelting of copper is generally to obtain copper concentrate by beneficiation of copper containing raw ore and make it in closed blast furnace, reverberatory furnace, electric furnace or flash furnace. The designer of SABIC said that ULTEM resin is very suitable for 3D printing matte smelting. The produced matte (matte) is sent to the converter for blowing and refining into crude copper, and then it is oxidized and refined in the reverberatory furnace for impurity removal, or cast into anode plate for electrolysis to obtain electrolytic copper with a grade of up to 99.9%. The process is short and adaptable, and the recovery rate of copper can reach 95%. However, the sulfur in the ore is discharged as sulfur dioxide waste gas in the two stages of matte making and converting, which is not easy to recover and easy to cause pollution. In recent years, molten pool smelting such as silver process, Noranda process and Mitsubishi process in Japan have appeared, and pyrometallurgical smelting is gradually developing towards continuity and automation

copper hydrometallurgy includes sulfation roasting leaching electrowinning, leaching extraction electrowinning, bacterial leaching and other methods, which are suitable for heap leaching, trough leaching or in-situ leaching of low-grade complex copper ores, copper oxide ores, copper containing waste ores

copper is a non-ferrous metal that has a very close relationship with human beings. It is widely used in electrical, electronic, machinery manufacturing, construction, national defense and other industries. Due to its large-scale, comprehensive and high-speed equipment industry. The consumption of copper and its alloys is second only to steel and aluminum. Copper is the most widely used and used in the electrical and electronic industries. The coils, wires and cables of generators are made of copper. Copper is used to manufacture various bullets, guns, heat exchangers of aircraft and ships, as well as bearings, pistons, switches, valves and high-pressure steam equipment. Copper and copper alloys are also widely used in other thermal technology, cooling devices, civil equipment, etc

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